Solomon—especially gifted by God—is famously one of the wisest men who ever lived. He requested and God granted him an extra measure of wisdom (1 Kings 3), which he shared through thousands of “proverbs” (1 Kings 4:32-34), which others sought out. Many of these are now collected for us in the Old Testament book of Proverbs. Solomon wrote most, but not all of them. Together they represent God’s wisdom addressing a wide range of subjects. This wisdom is about more than just knowledge; it is more about applied knowledge—that is, using the wisdom to inform and live out God’s will in all aspects of life.
It is important to understand how the literature of Proverbs differs from other parts of the Bible. Proverbs is, fittingly, in the category of wisdom literature. It offers guidelines, probabilities, and insight, but unlike the law and prophecy sections of Scripture, it speaks about probable and possible outcomes—not commands. (For instance, while it is generally true that a child who is brought up in the way of the Lord will never depart—Proverbs 22:6—there are exceptions). The Proverbs should not be approached as a book of formulas therefore, but as they were intended—a collection of applied wisdom and a general guideline for wise, godly living.
Our specific weekly Bible reading of Proverbs 6-24 is part of the heart of the book—full of applied wisdom covering a wide swath of subjects. Topics such as justice, poverty, debt, sex, family, generosity, marriage, friendship, vocation, character, alcohol and forgiveness are addressed. In one way this section can be used as a reference—looking up each subject to hear a wise word about it from the Lord.
Wisdom for the ages! Let’s check some of it out:
Avoid the sluggard syndrome. Don’t become lazy and fearful. The sluggard is presented in Proverbs as someone so lazy they will not exert the energy to feed themselves or so fearful that even a rumor of a roaming lion will entice them to remain in their perpetual slumbered state. The end result is ruin (Proverbs 6:6-11; 13:4; 19:24; 20;4; 21:5, 25-26; 22:3; 24: 30-32; 26:14-15). Instead of a sluggard lifestyle, the Proverbs point to the ant as the example of industrious labor.
Avoid seduction. Adultery; the allure of illicit sex is a topic to which wisdom is applied (Proverbs 6-7). This is a father speaking to his son—teaching him the folly of empty, gratuitous sex. These words remain ever true to our contemporary setting.
Embrace wisdom. Of course, this could be the purpose statement of all of the Proverbs, but in chapter eight especially fortifies wisdom’s significance. Here wisdom speaks for itself and advises: “Listen to my instruction and be wise; do not ignore it” (vs. 33). We would still do well to heed.
“The fear of the Lord.” This is a theme of the Proverbs (9:10) but it is more about reverence and awe than it is about being afraid. It is about being drawn to God to learn from him, not about hiding in fear from him. Being drawn reverently to him is how we begin our journey of wisdom and knowledge.
The tongue—a source of blessings and curse. All throughout this segment of the Proverbs, wisdom advices proper use of the tongue, while also warning against the trouble the misuse of words will bring. Just consider chapter 10 alone (vss. 11, 13-14, 18-21, 31). All true wisdom for the ages.
Discipline brings maturity; the lack thereof brings folly. This is another major thread running throughout Proverbs. The wise man understands the value of a disciplined life; while the foolish man avoids it and runs into folly and ruin. Discipline teaches, corrects and matures. The undisciplined receive no such parameters and therefore are destined to error and trouble. (10:23; 12:1; 15:12; 21:11).
Pride leads to ruin. Wisdom shines light upon pride and exposes the traps it contains. (11:12; 13:10; 16:18; 29:23). Pride continues to lead to destruction.
Justice is encouraged. It should not surprise that wisdom and justice go together (8:20; 17:23; 18:5; 21:15; 29:7, 26)). Justice—like wisdom itself—originates in God. The righteous seek it, while the wicked seek to subvert it.
Avoid drunkenness. An entire section is dedicated to warning against the effects of strong drink (23:29-35; also 20:1 & 23:20-21). Alcoholism and drunkenness continues to do much damage throughout all generations. The wisdom of the Proverbs applied would limit such damage.
The way of the righteous is also highlighted all throughout the Proverbs. It is usually contrasted with the way of the wicked (see for example 11:5-11). This also illustrates the “probable” nature of the Proverb. In each comparison, the righteous realizes a positive outcome, while the wicked are forecast nothing but trouble. While this is generally true, it is not guaranteed (this side of eternity anyway). Some struggle with the Proverbs as a result, but the purpose, context and style of literature must be heavily considered.
Another way to consider the Proverbs is as divine common sense. Solomon being gifted a special dispensation simply approaches life situations and topics sharing a measure of common sense to them. “Wise sayings” is how the Proverbs are defined and that is an accurate definition.
The first seven verses of the book provide an overview and what the Proverbs are all about but one text perhaps sums the point of the Proverbs up best:
Pay attention and listen to the sayings of the wise; apply your heart to what I teach, for it is pleasing when you keep them in your heart and have all of them ready on your lips. So that your trust may be in the Lord, I teach you today (22:17-19).
The Proverbs are wisdom for the ages—all ages—for us here and now. It would serve us well to pay attention and listen to these sayings.